Invaded by Germany in 1941, Belarus was placed under colonial administration as the Generalbezirk Weissruthenien. A puppet White Ruthenian Central Rada established in 1943 staffed with local collaborators such as Radaslau Astrouski, Ivan Yermachenka and Basil Artishenko.

As part of the Reichskommissariat Ostland and later Baltenland, the White Ruthenian Region gained territory from Russia, while some historically Belarussian territory was lost to the Reichskommissariat Ukraine (later Gotenland), to the Generalbezirk Lettland (later Dunaland, the former Latvia) and of course to Germany proper.