Estado Novo do Brasil/New State of Brazil




Porto Alegre (from 1960)

Head of State

Getulio Vargas (1933-1954), Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco (1954-1967), Ernesto Geisel (1967-1982), Joao Figueiredo (from 1982)

Ruling Party

Partido de Representacao Popular (1945-1964), Alianca Renovadora Nacional (from 1964)

Head of Government

Plinio Salgado (1945-1974), Augusto Hamann Rademaker Grunewald (1974-1980), Marcio Melo (1980-1981), Alfredo Buzaid (from 1981)


Regarded as the most pro-Axis state in the Americas by the outbreak of the war, Getulio Vargas of Brazil founded a bloc of pro-Axis Latin American nations alongside Juan Peron of Argentina, Carlos Ibanez del Campo of Chile, Alberto Demicheli of Uruguay, Alfredo Stroessner of Paraguay and Gualberto Villarroel of Bolivia.

As with Villarroel and Peron, Vargas' regime was seen as too populist by elements within his government, and was overthrown in 1954 as part of a wave of internal power struggles that struck across the Southern Cone dictatorships. Villarroel and Vargas were both murdered, along with many of their supporters, their deaths blamed on US-backed insurrections. Peron remained in power, but with his power severely curtailed.

Among the Brazilian victims of the 1954 purge were Marshal Candido Rondon, Admiral Joao Candido Felisberto, Vargas' close ally Joao Goulat and Gregorio Fortunato, Vargas' bodyguard known as 'Anjo Negro' (Black Angel). Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco became president, replaced after his death by Ernesto Geisel. Geisel was in turn replaced by Joao Figueirado.

Since 1945, the position of Vice-President has always been held by a member of the Integralist Movement. Originally banned by Vargas, he reluctantly integrated Plinio Salgado's movement into the Estado Novo at the insistance of the military, especially the navy. Salgado was replaced as Vice-President by the Integralist Admiral Augusto Hamann Rademaker Grunewald in 1974, then by the Integralist Air Force General Marcio Melo in 1980.

Melo was replaced by Alfredo Buzaid, the former Minister of Justice and close ally of Eurico Resende, the Leader of the regime's official party, the ARENA, in the National Senate.