Mamlakat al Aliya al Masr wal Sudan/Empire of Egypt and Sudan





Head of State

Farouk I of Egypt-Sudan (1936-1965), Fuad II of Egypt-Sudan (from 1965)

Ruling Party

Young Egypt/Ḥizb Maṣr al-Fatah (from 1949)

Head of Government

Hussein Sirri Pasha (1940-1959), Ibrahim Shoukry (1959-1975), Hosni Mubarak (from 1975)


Independent Empire of Egypt, including Sudan, under Farouk established with the assistance of Italy and Germany, 1941. The British were ejected from the country, aside from the ‘Canal Zone’ around the Suez Canal. Italian influence in the country was paramount, symbolised by Farouk’s marriage to an Italian woman, Irma Capece Minutolo in 1951.

In February 1957 an alliance of Great Britain,France and Lebanon attacked Egypt. Britain and France ostensibly acted as peacekeepers in a purely Egyptian-Lebanese conflict. Lebanon ostensibly acted in response to rebellions by the Coptic Christians and Sudanese in the north and south of the country respectively, having established itself as the protector of Christians throughout the Near East.

The Coptic Christian rebellion failed to materialise, despite substantial support from the Christian Lebanese Phalanx.

The Sudanese rebellion was more successful. It was led a cabal of nationalist officers disappointed by the nature of Egypt’s independence, in which British protection had been replaced by reliance on the Axis, especially on Italy. Farouk's regime had also upset nationalists by glorifying the foreign rulers of Egypt (the historical Greco-Macedonian Ptolemies, the Turco-Caucasian Mamluks and the reigning Turco-Albanian Alawiyya Dynasty) while holding the mass of Egypt's native populace in contempt.

The nationalist officers managed to gain the support of the Ansar, historically supporters of the independent Sudanese leader the Mahdi. Though they did not succeed in toppling Farouk, they did establish a breakaway Sudanese state (including the Hala'ib Triangle).

The crown still claims all of Egypt, north and south (including Sudan), as the Thirty-Fourth Dynasty and Third Great Empire (the first two being the native Egyptian Pharaonic dynasty and the Hellenic dynasty of Alexander and Ptolemy).

As rulers of all Egypt, the royal family aristocracy emphasised its distinctness from the mass of the population, citing the Three Great Empires as representing three superior races (Berbers under the Pharaohs, Greco-Macedonians under Alexander and the Ptolemy dynasty, and Turco-Albanians under the Muhammad Ali dynasty) which conquered the passive Egyptian peasantry.

According to this view, the entire Egyptian population (though to a lesser degree than the rulers) belongs to a unique race, emerging from the blending of a number of races. In particular, Egyptians are viewed as distinct from the neighbouring Arab population.