Etats-Unis d’Haiti et Quisqueya/Estados Unidos de Haití y Quisqueya/United States of Haiti and Quisqueya/Etas Uni d'Ayiti e Kiskeya




Sosua DF

Head of State

Elie Lescot (1941-1945), Dumarsais Estime (1945-1953), Juan Bosch Gavino (from 1953)

Ruling Party

Parti Socialiste/Partido Socialista (from 1947)

Head of Government

Juan Bosch Gavino (1945-1953), Ludvik Svoboda (1953-1975), Daniel Fignole (from 1975)


Elie Lescot, the puppet president of Haiti backed by the Dominican Republic, was overthrown in 1945. In 1946 forces from Haiti, supported by forces from the USA and Central America invaded the Dominican Republic to overthrow the dictator Rafael Trujillo.

Trujillo had established good relations with the Axis Powers, while maintaining a pro-US image. He had accepted over 100,000 refugees from German-dominated Europe, ostensibly on humanitarian grounds. However the resettlement of thousands of Europeans to the Dominican Republic had served the demographic interests of both the Nazis and Trujillo. The Nazi regime wanted to rid the territories they had conquered in the east of their native 'elites': members of the intelligencia, church leaders, political leaders, etc. Trujillo sought to 'whiten' the Dominican Republic through large-scale immigration from Europe.

Ultimately, this proved to be his undoing. Simultaneous with the Haitian invasion, there was an uprising of dissident Dominicans, centred on the town of Sosua in the north of the country, home to many of the newly arrived refugees. Trujillo was ousted by the end of 1946, and a United States of Haiti was established, uniting the whole island for the first time since 1844.

The refugees were of a mix of nationalities, though overwhelmingly Francophone rather than Hispanophone. This shifted the language politics of the island definitively toward French.


The official name of the republic is the United States of Haiti and Quisqueya. The island is known as Hispaniola/La Espagnola or Santo Domingo/Saint-Domingue. It is subdivided into 

  • Republic of Haiti/Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik Ayiti/Republica de Haiti
  • Republic of Quisqueya/Republica de Quisqueya/Republique de Quisqueya/Repiblik Kiskeya
  • Federal District of Sosua/Sosua, Districto Federal/Sosua, District Federal/Sosua, Distrik Fedral